Rethinking Canadian Elections

*Updated with a section on the BC Referendum 2018, this article seeks to address what’s wrong with the current FPTP system and how PR might resolve some of these issues, namely, voter turnout and voter representation locally, regionally, and nationally.

On a national scale…

In 2008, 940,000 voters supporting the Green Party sent no one to Parliament, setting a new historical record for the most votes cast for any party that gained no parliamentary representation. By comparison, 813,000 Conservative voters in Alberta alone were able to elect 27 MPs.

In the prairie provinces, Conservatives received about twice the vote of the Liberals and NDP, but took seven times as many seats. However, when it came to urban Conservatives, a quarter-million Conservative voters in Toronto elected no one, nor did Conservative voters in Montreal. (In 2006, meanwhile, fewer than 500,000 Liberal voters in Atlantic Canada alone elected 20 MPs.)

Finally, The NDP attracted 1.1 million more votes than the Bloc, but the voting system gave the Bloc 50 seats, the NDP 37.

-Democracy Watch

It doesn’t add up

The discrepancy should set off alarm bells. In a business, policies would change immediately. Yet Canadian politics has resisted change for a very long time. What’s worse is that Canada is falling behind the rest of the democratic world in voter participation. It may be because we are hanging on to a troubled system where it’s common to feel like one is not truly represented in government.

Win-Lose: feeling disenfranchised

The beauty of our current First-Past-The-Post (FPTP) system is that it’s blissfully simple. You enter the voting booth, grab your pencil, and put an X on one local candidate. You drop it in the box and you walk out. In the public eye, simplicity is good.

But the problem that accompanies this simplicity is that this system allows a candidate to win with a tiny fraction (say, 26%) of support in their riding, because all the winner needs is a couple more votes than the next candidate. Meanwhile, the majority of votes don’t necessarily elect anyone.

The FPTP system of election, designed in the 17th century, is built to cater to clustered pockets of support in local ridings. But it largely ignores regional or national trends. It might feel good if everyone in your riding is voting for the candidate or party you want. But everyone else goes unrepresented. So FPTP is not a truly fair democratic system. It leave many people out.

What’s more, the FPTP system allows provincial parties (like the Bloc Quebecois) to win big – taking twice as many seats as a nationally popular party (like the NDP) – with half the votes! And this isn’t a hypothetical situation – look at a recent past election:

The Bloc: received 10% of national votes, but won 50 seats. The NDP claimed 18% of national votes, but gained only 37 seats.

If no change takes place, we maintain several losing propositions:

  • Parties lose through the hit-or-miss aspect of our electoral system. Sometimes you win, sometimes you lose.
  • Voters lose as huge numbers of ballots are cast meaninglessly. In many ridings, the majority of ballots elect no-one.
  • Government is failed by an unfair allocation of representative seats. A party might be elected with 40% of the votes but hold 100% of the power.
  • Ultimately, Canada loses as a country that is already struggling with citizen participation because many people feel their vote won’t count simply because of the riding they are casting their vote in.

A different way

Are there ways to politically represent more people more accurately? Yes. Several alternate systems are alive and well in democracies around the world. Plenty of nations around the world have sought a system that allocates votes in proper proportions. The idea is called Proportional Representation and it comes in various forms.

The idea is for Proportional Representation (video) to allow voters to enjoy the best possible representation by making some adjustments to the way votes are processed. Ultimately, Proportional Representation aims to reflect regional or national demographics more accurately. Proportional Representation may also account better for political representation in aspects of gender, ethnicity, urban and rural populations.

The United States and Canada can be and have been global leaders in modern democracy, yet, there are other, arguably more democratic, systems of government at work all over the world. The  countries illustrated in this map use systems of Proportional Representation.

Countries using Proportional Representation systems

BC’s PR Referendum (2018)

So what are the options?

Mixed Member Proportional (MMP)

MMP gives the voter one ballot with two votes.

  1. The voter casts one vote for a local candidate, and casts a second vote for any registered political party.
  2. Local candidates (one for each riding, as usual) are elected by the current “winner takes all” system.
  3. An amount of extra empty seats get filled in proportion to the second votes for the parties.
  4. These give the chance for popular parties to ‘top off’ their representation in the assembly according to the votes they get across the country.
  5. In practice, the MMP allows you to choose, for example, a Conservative candidate to represent your riding because you think they have good principles, but also cast a vote towards a Green party seat because you think they have some good policies.

Features of the MMP:

1. The system captures the broader preferences of citizens.
2. An individual vote is more decisive and more meaningful. MMP erases the need for the “do I vote with my head or with my heart?” question.
3. Parties that have general (eg. national) support but few elected representatives will gain a reasonable measure of influence.
4. The system allows for a more accurate representation of viewpoints.
5. There is opportunity for parties to work towards more proportional representation.

Ontario MPs, Senators, and over 150 university political science professors all agreed that the MMP system is more democratic and would better represent the diverse Ontario population than the current system. There was a lot of misinformation spread about MMP in the last referendum, and thus the vote was defeated.

Dual-Member Proportional (DMP)

  • DMP allows districts to combine with another and be represented by two MLAs. The candidate with the most votes wins the first seat.
  • The second seat is won by a party based on its share of the popular vote province-wide and their performance in each district
  • The voter will still vote for a candidate or pair of candidates with one mark on the ballot.

Rural-Urban Proportional (RUP)

  • Fair Vote Canada conceived of this system to basically cater to Canada’s unique geography, using both multi-member districts as well as top-up seats to meet the varied needs of both rural and urban areas.
  • Similar models are used in Sweden, Denmark and Iceland.
  • It blends the aspects of STV and MMP, depending on which area you live in (rural or urban).

Single-Transferable Vote (STV)

*STV is not on the referendum in 2018 as a stand-alone system; it is incorporated partly in RUP.

In 2005, the British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly proposed the BC-STV as an equitable voting system. It came within three percent of passing in 2005 and was offered again for referendum in 2009, failing once more, arguably because of misinformation.

Single-Transferable Vote (STV) is designed to reduce wasted votes by giving greater weight to multiple preferences. On an STV ballot, each voter ranks the candidates on the list in order of preference. A candidate must make a certain quota of votes to win.
An STV election proceeds like this:
1. Any candidate who has reached or exceeded the required quota is declared elected.
2. If not enough candidates have been elected, the count continues.
3. If a candidate has more votes than the quota, then their surplus is transferred to other candidates according to the next preference on each voter’s ballot.
4. If no one meets the quota, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and their votes are transferred.
This process repeats from step 1 until the required numbers of candidates have been elected . By allowing the voter to state their preferences, this system eliminates the hit-or-miss aspect of FPTP.

Expert views

Kimberley Earles and Tammy Findlay from York University argue that the current system of representation in both the House of Commons and the Senate fails to:

1. Reflect the diversity of the Canadian people (In 2003, Aboriginal peoples occupied 1 per cent of House of Commons seats, no Cabinet positions, and 6 per cent of Senate seats. People of colour occupied approximately 5 per cent of House seats and 7 per cent of Cabinet positions).
2. Reflect gender equality (In 2003, Women sat in only 21 per cent of House seats and 35 per cent of Senate seats). This decade, Canada ranked 36th in women’s representation in legislative assemblies.

Earles and Findlay demonstrate in their findings that Proportional Representation systems elect more women. The top five countries with most women in legislative assemblies all have Proportional Representation. The Hon. Senator Lucie Pépin agrees that there has been little change in Canada.


Pressure for reforming democracy in Canada comes from a variety of sources inside and outside of government. Each party ought to have a concern for democratic renewal in their platform. Regrettably, some leading parties are the least concerned. We wonder why more Canadians don’t participate in voting, but when we see how meaninglessly broken our system is, we find some reasons. We should be prompted to fix the root cause of our political despondency: whether your vote counts. With a more representative system, voters have more opportunities to re-engage the governance of the country and to have their voice heard. Is it so easy to forget that that is the reason the democratic system exists at all?

Story & Style: Teaching Resources I’ve Created

I’m a huge supporter of free enterprise and digital sharing. I commend educators who are carving out their spare time and pouring in their energy to creating high quality education products and distributing them through e-commerce.

My sister’s French teaching store is becoming very successful on Teachers Pay Teachers, and she encouraged me to create one too. My focus is high school English and Social Studies (Humanities). If it helps you, I’m glad!

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BCeSIS Must Die

**Summer 2014 update: BCeSIS has finally gone! A new program, Aspen, has been selected to take its place. Teachers everywhere smile.**

BCeSIS is a nightmarish grade-reporting program mandated for use in all BC schools. When droves of teachers began to report problems with the program, the British Columbia government spent over $50 million to fix it, with basically no results. It’s buggy, heavy-handed, and reminiscent of software from the early 1990’s. This is what we use to create your children’s report cards that attempt to guide them through the formative years of their lives.

bcesis ss

Any business would quickly ask why anyone would use something so pathetic across the province. There are twitter accounts and YouTube videos dubbed over old German WW2 movies (see below) dedicated to mocking and berating the existence of this digital problem package. In private industry, an agile, user-friendly, service-oriented competitor would have quickly pitched their platform and earned the contract. Alas, red tape and provincial mandates.

And today, in the middle of report card writing season, BCeSIS won’t even open on any of my internet browsers, since it was built on an old version of Java and the update renders it inaccessible.

It’s bitter, ridiculous irony: a report-writing program designed to “support student achievement” has done so little towards that goal; I would go so far as to say BCeSIS has negatively affected reporting in British Columbia. The space it provides teachers to summarize the total personal, intellectual, social and emotional learning of their students is an inadequate three sentences. The amount of headaches caused to teachers during report writing weeks and weekends have been enough to begin the next week of teaching exasperated and grumpy. This software is supposed to make our jobs easier, not harder.

And with the incredible amount of great tech start-ups even right in Vancouver (like the world-class Hootsuite) almost anyone could have done it better. Imagine a beautiful, local solution we could be proud of. But somehow, in this stupid catastrophe, we have ended up with a worthless and meaningless platform produced by a technology company whose work in general has been less than superior; technology which makes us feel like we’re doing data entry on lab rats or testing out retro software that feels like you should have accessed it using MS-DOS prompt.

Government of British Columbia, I implore you. Quickly axe BCeSIS as suggested in 2011. This living nightmare has lasted long enough.

Managing School Stress: An Insider Perspective

This article was originally published on Libero Network. A big shout-out to my friend Lauren Bersaglio, founder. Libero is a non-profit online magazine and resource site that brings awareness to and offers support for those recovering from eating disorders, depression, addiction, anxiety & abuse.

So why is school so stressful?

I’ve been teaching for three years. Before that, I was a student, and still am. I see education from both sides: student and teacher. Let’s talk about how to manage school stress.

I have to start with a disclaimer: School is just one part of your life learning – all that information about the world that you’ve been collecting since you starting sensing stimuli in the womb. We all know learning is a good thing – I mean, kids love learning – and we love learning about things we care about, whether that’s keeping up to date with the newest music, learning some quirky fact about our best friend, or flipping through faded photo albums in grandma’s musty attic.

So why is school so stressful? Maybe because school isn’t simply learning in an way that’s always comfortable or even interesting. It can be, but it falls short.

It’s a flawed human system. Many great people did not do well in school. Thomas Edison’s teacher gave up on him and sent him home to be schooled by his mother. Albert Einstein did very poorly in high school math. Assessment isn’t always done well. Learning styles and teaching styles can differ.

I’d say three major school stressors are peers, grades, and time management. I can’t do anything about your peers (except to recommend that a casual “hi” and a smile goes a log way to say, “I’m not out to get you; you can relax around me”) so I’m going to focus on grades and time management:

1. You are not defined by your grades.

You are a person of infinite value, hidden talents, and incalculable creativity. When a teacher hands you back a piece of paper with a red mark on it, that’s not a reflection on your worth. It might be a measurement of your progress in one particular area. But it is also in the past. Whether bad or good, your assessments do not define you in the future; they provide you with a starting point from which to continue in a positive trajectory.

When a toddler falls down trying to walk, her parents don’t throw their hands up and say, “Oh! We might as well give up – she’s failed!” No. They keep encouraging the toddler to try until she can walk with confidence. Your failures will scare you less when you see that failure is not a final destination, just another learning opportunity. This is the growth mindset. For more on how your mindset might be the thing holding you back, and how to break that, read New York Times Bestseller Mindset by Carol Dweck.

Getting used to short-term failure is key to finding long-term success.

2. Ask for help when you need it.

You understand you’re not defined by your grades, but you still want to do your best in school. Great! Do you ask for help? From a young age we are taught to be independent, but really we are inter-dependent. We need each other. A good place to start is to admit that there will always be someone better than you at a particular skill.

Not asking for help can be a sign of unresolved pride. It says, “I don’t need you” to people whose expertise, wisdom, and guidance could be the exact key we need.

3. Ask for help even before you need it.

Why wait to run into trouble? The best kind of education is when we have a consistent feeling of growth. Schedule a weekly drop-in to your teachers at a convenient time for them and ask them how you can do the best you can. Make sure you understand the week’s concepts by explaining them back to your teachers and asking if you got it right.

Make a habit of studying by doing it with your friends over snacks before there’s a huge test. If you review your notes at the end of class for 5 minutes, then review them again that evening, your retention rate rockets.

4. Make the most of a calendar.

I’ve stayed up way too late finishing assignments. In university a friend gave me a good tip: on a calendar, mark the due dates of your major assignments with a D. One week (or three days, or whatever) before each is due, make an advance completion date (C or X). Then give yourself an estimate of how many days it will take you to finish it (a week, three weeks) and mark the start date S.

You can colour code your classes or figure out your own system. You will never turn in an assignment last-minute or late ever again, you will have enough time to edit all your assignments, you will feel less stress and more proud of your work.

5. Talk it out.

The worst thing is to bottle things up. If you are stressed about school, do talk to someone. Not just your friends. Griping to them might make you feel better momentarily, but it won’t help resolve the root stressor.

Talk to a teacher preferably, or a guidance counsellor, a mentor, a youth leader, or someone in your faith community. Ask them to hear you out and ask them for their advice. Ask them how you might approach the person, class, or project that is causing stress.

6. Stop trying to multitask.

The latest brain research tells us that we really misunderstand multitasking. It’s not as effective as we are led to believe. Instead focus. Say no to new distractions. Complete one task at a time. This method is less stressful and develops our powers of concentration.

7. Don’t get stuck halfway.

The worst place to be is halfway. Not fully working and not fully resting. I catch myself doing this, flipping back and forth when I need to make my mind up. Right now, decide whether you are working or resting. Then make that time clear. Are you going to watch TV for 30 minutes? Watch it guilt-free. When 30 minutes is up, be honest with yourself, turn it off, and start working until you’ve accomplished what you set out to do.

This requires discipline, and there’s only one way to achieve that. Just do it. You can. I believe in you.

Rethinking Letter Grades

Rethinking letter grades: a coherent argument put forth by Darcy Mullin.

On Learning

As mentioned in an earlier post our school is planning to move toward a “no letter” grade policy next year.  I am excited about the possibility and believe it will enhance learning in our school for both students and teachers.  That said, we certainly have some work to do.

Letter grades are easy.  Effectively and accurately reporting on learning is a much harder process.

It is easy to create an assignment, or an assessment and assign it a value.  Students complete the work and hope they get they highest mark possible…maybe even full marks.  It is easy to quantify and it is a system we (teachers, students, parents) all understand.  It’s a system that has been in place as long before I ever entered the school system. As educators we could continue this practice until the end of time – it would be comfortable and for the most part people…

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Education Pays

For all the naysayers who speak against the value of further education, it appears that having post-secondary actually does pay off. See this graphic.
For me, education is more than just the money you can make with your degree (I did study English and Social Sciences, after all), and I also find I have more options at my fingertips because of my degree.

Teach and Create

A friend of mine shared this lesson idea with me, and I think it’s just fantastic, especially if you have students in your class who are inclined to doubt the value of a having a high school education/diploma…

In my friend’s class (which is in a NYC public high school), she showed her students the following chart, which indicates the median weekly earnings as well as unemployment rates in the U.S. in 2012, broken down by education degrees earned:

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She discussed and interpreted the chart with her students and asked them to identify patterns.  Then, she had her students create a monthly budget based on the average income of an individual who has less than a high school diploma.  They used this chart to create their budgets:

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Needless to say, the kids quickly saw something wrong with this picture.  “This isn’t enough money to live on!” many began to exclaim…

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The 7 Powerful Idea Shifts In Learning Today

Classroom Aid

by Terry Heick, : Shift_Learning: The 7 Most Powerful Idea Shifts In Learning Today

digital learning

So we’re taking a stand here. This is all incredibly subjective, but so are the VH1 Top 100 Hair Bands Videos and those are fun, am I right?

So subjective it is. Let’s make a list. A list of ideas that are truly transformational. Not just trends or buzz, but substance with the potential for lasting change–and stuff that’s available not tomorrow, but today.

Utopian visions of learning are tempting, if for no other reason than they absolve us of accountability to create itright now, leading to nebulous romanticizing about how powerful learning could be if we just did more of X and Y.

But therein lies the rub: Tomorrow’s learning is already available, and below are 7 of the most compelling and powerful trends, concepts, and resources that represent its promise.

The Challenge…

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